With today's high prices for natural gas and oil, the demand for oil and country tubular goods (OCTG), with superior performance properties, is very high. Failures in OCTG can be attributed to numerous sources, for example, makeup torque, corrosion, and galling. Thread galling is the most common mode of failure. This failure often leads to leakage, corrosion of the material, and loss of mechanical integrity. The failure of OCTG eventually amounts to excessive operational costs for the gas and oil industry. The have been numerous approaches taken to improve the galling resistance of OCTG connections. The advocacy of these approaches is often achieved through experimental studies using galling testers. In this paper, it is proposed to classify the galling testers in seven distinct groups. There is a need to design and use effective galling testers to understand and improve the performance of OCTG connections. Thus, the objective of this paper was to present a concise review of literature related to the galling testers that may have applications to OCTG.

1.
Guangjie, Y., Zhenqiang, Y., Qinghua, W., and Zhentong, T., 2006, “Numerical and experimental distribution of temperature and stress fields in API round threaded connection,” Engineering Failure Analysis (In Press).
2.
Ertas
A.
,
Carper
H. J.
,
Cuvalci
O.
,
Ekwaro-Osire
S.
, and
Blackstone
W. R.
,
1992
, “
Experimental investigation of galling resistance in OCTG connections
,”
Journal of engineering for industry
,
114
(
1)
, pp.
100
104
.
3.
Rach
N. M.
,
2005
, “
New dry connections eliminate need for pipe dope during drilling
,”
Oil and Gas Journal
,
103
(
22)
, pp.
45
49
.
4.
Markov
D.
, and
Kelly
D.
,
2000
, “
Mechanisms of adhesion-initiated catastrophic wear: Pure sliding
,”
Wear
,
239
(
2)
, pp.
189
210
.
5.
Van der Heide
E.
,
Huis ’t Veld
A. J.
, and
Schipper
D. J.
,
2001
, “
The effect of lubricant selection on galling in a model wear test
,”
Wear
,
250
, pp.
973
979
.
6.
Ertas
A.
,
Culvalci
O.
, and
Carper
H.
,
1999
, “
Determination of friction characteristics of J-55 OCTG connections lubricated with environmentally safe thread compound
,”
ASLE Tribology Transactions
,
42
(
4)
, pp.
881
887
.
7.
Wiklund
U.
,
Casas
B.
, and
Stavlid
N.
,
2006
, “
Evaporated vanadium nitride as a friction material in dry sliding against stainless steel
,”
Wear
,
261
, pp.
2
8
.
8.
Tsuru, E., Tsukano, Y., Maruyama, K., Sato, N., Okamura, K., Nagayoshi, H., and Oka, M., 2002 “Dope-free type premium connection for oil country tubular goods,” Technical Report No. 81, Nippon Steel.
9.
Podgornik
B.
, and
Hogmark
S.
,
2006
, “
Surface modification to improve friction and galling properties of forming tools
,”
Journal of Materials Processing Technology
,
174
(
1–3)
, pp.
334
341
.
10.
Waite, R.A., Hummel, S.R., Herr, A., and Dalton, G., 2006, “Analysis of the stress field in a threshold-galling test,” Tribology International (In Press).
11.
Gurumoorthy, K., Kamaraj, M., Rao, K.P., and Venugopal, S., 2006, “Development and use of combined wear testing equipment for evaluating galling and high stress sliding wear behaviour,” Materials & Design (In Press).
12.
Hummel
S. R.
,
2001
, “
New test method and apparatus for measuring galling resistance
,”
Tribology international
,
34
(
9)
, pp.
593
597
.
13.
Podgornik
B.
,
Hogmark
S.
, and
Pezdirnik
J.
,
2004
, “
Comparison between different test methods for evaluation of galling properties of surface engineered tool surfaces
,”
Wear
,
257
(
7–8)
, pp.
843
851
.
14.
Wang
Z.
,
Dohda
K.
, and
Haruyama
Y.
,
2006
, “
Effects of entraining velocity of lubricant and sliding velocity on friction behavior in stainless steel sheet rolling
,”
Wear
,
260
(
3)
, pp.
249
257
.
15.
Ertas
A.
,
Carper
H. J.
, and
Blackstone
W. R.
,
1992
, “
Development of a test machine and method for galling studies
,”
Experimental Mechanics
,
32
(
4)
, pp.
340
347
.
16.
Blau
P. J.
, and
Budinski
K. G.
,
1999
, “
Development and use of ASTM standards for wear testing
,”
Wear
,
229
, pp.
1159
1170
.
17.
Carper
H. J.
,
Ertas
A.
,
Issa
J.
, and
Cuvalci
O.
,
1992
, “
Effect of some material, manufacturing, and operating variables on the friction coefficient in OCTG connections
,”
Journal of tribology
,
114
(
4)
, pp.
698
705
.
18.
American Society for Testing and Materials, 2002 “Standard test method for galling resistance of materials, G98, annual book of American society for testing and materials standards,” Technical Report No. 3.02., ASTM.
19.
Xie
Y.
, and
Yao
M. X.
,
2003
, “
Measurement of the threshold galling stress of hardfacing alloys
,”
Wear
,
255
, pp.
509
516
.
20.
Izciler
M.
, and
Tabur
M.
,
2006
, “
Abrasive wear behavior of different case depth gas carburized AISI 8620 gear steel
,”
Wear
,
260
(
1–2)
, pp.
90
98
.
21.
Hummel
S. R.
,
2002
, “
An application of frictional criteria for determining galling thresholds in line contact tests
,”
Tribology international
,
35
(
12)
, pp.
801
807
.
22.
Hummel
S. R.
, and
Partlow
B.
,
2003
, “
Threshold galling load and frictional behavior of stainless steel couples in line contact
,”
Wear
,
255
, pp.
504
508
.
23.
Hogmark, S., Jacobson, S., and Wa¨nstrand, O., 1999, “A new universal test for tribological evaluation,” 21st IRG-OECD Meeting, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
24.
Persson
D. H. E.
,
Jacobson
S.
, and
Hogmark
S.
,
2003
, “
The influence of phase transformations and oxidation on the galling resistance and low friction behaviour of a laser processed co-based alloy
,”
Wear
,
254
(
11)
, pp.
1134
1140
.
25.
Persson
D. H. E.
,
Jacobson
S.
, and
Hogmark
S.
,
2003
, “
Effect of temperature on friction and galling of laser processed Norem 02 and Stellite 21
,”
Wear
,
255
, pp.
498
503
.
26.
Carper
H.
,
Ku
P. M.
, and
Anderson
E. L.
,
1973
, “
Effect of some material and operating variables on scuffing
,”
Mechanism and Machine Theory
,
8
, pp.
209
225
.
27.
Muster
A.
, and
Presz
W.
,
1999
, “
Influence of initial surface roughness on galling behaviour of a steel-steel couple
,”
Scandinavian Journal of Metallurgy
,
28
, pp.
5
8
.
28.
Cuvalci
O.
,
Sofuoglu
H.
, and
Ertas
A.
,
2003
, “
Effect of surface coating and tin plating on friction characteristics of P-110 tubing for different thread compounds
,”
Tribology international
,
36
(
10)
, pp.
757
764
.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.