This study quantifies the effectiveness of the various seat belt pretensioner configurations relative to the no pretensioner condition and defines the relative sensitivity of the Hybrid-III 50th and THOR-NT 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test devices to pretensioner effects. The results of this study indicate that pretensioners reduced the chest accelerations and Head Injury Criteria (HIC) of both Hybrid-III and THOR-NT dummies. In addition, the pretensioners reduced the chest forward movement by providing restraint earlier in the event. The dual pretensioners and the retractor pretensioners were more effective than the buckle pretensioner and the no pretensioner conditions. Although the Hybrid-III and THOR-NT were different in construction and sitting depth, the Hybrid-III and THOR-NT's responses to the pretensioner conditions were similar. Test-to-test repeatability was acceptable for both dummies.

1.
Kallieris, D., Rizzetti, A., Mattern, R., Morgan, R., Eppinger, R., and Keenan, L., 1995, “On the Synergism of the Driver Air Bag and the 3-Point Belt in Frontal Collisions,” SAE Paper No. 952700
2.
Crandall
J.
,
Bass
C.
,
Pilkey
W.
,
Morgan
R.
,
Eppinger
R.
,
Miller
H.
, and
Sikorski
J.
,
1997
, “
Thoracic response and injury with belt, driver side air bag, and constant force retractor restraints
,”
International Journal of Crashworthiness
,
2
(
1)
, pp.
119
132
3.
Rangarajan, N., Shams, T., McDonald, J., White, R., Oster, J., Hjerpe, E., and Haffner, M., 1998, “Response of THOR in frontal sled testing in different restraint conditions” International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Impact (IRCOBI), Goteberg, Sweden.
4.
Kent
R.
,
Lessley
D.
,
Shaw
G.
, and
Crandall
J.
,
2003
, “
The Utility of Hybrid-III and THOR Chest Deflection for Discriminating Between Standard and Force-Limiting Belt System
,”
Stapp Car Crash Journal
, Vol.
47
, pp.
267
297
.
5.
Walz, M., 2003, “NCAP Test Improvements with Pretensioners and Load Limiters” NHTSA Technical Report, http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/rules/regrev/evaluate/pdf/809 562.pdf
6.
Zellmer, H., Kahler, C., and Eickhoff, B., 2005, “Optimised pretensioning of the belt system: A rating criterion and the benefit in consumer tests,” International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV) Paper No. 05-0004
7.
Schneider, L., Haffer, M., Eppinger, R., Salloum, M., Beebe, M., Rouhana, S., King, A., Hardy, W., and Neatherly, R., 1992, “Development of an Advanced ATD Thorax System for Improved Injury Assessment
8.
Shams, T., Rangarajan, N., McDonald, J., Wang, Y., Platten, G., Spade, C., and Pope, P., 2005, “Development of THOR NT: Enhancement of THOR Alpha — The NHTSA Advanced Frontal Dummy,” International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV) Paper No. 05-0455.
9.
Haffner, M., Eppinger, R., Rangarajan, N., Shams, T., Artis, M., Beach, D., 2001, “Foundations and Elements of the NHTSA THOR Alpha STD Design,” International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV) Paper No. 458.
10.
Society of Automotive Engineers., 2003, “Instrumentation for Impact Test-Part 1-Electronic Instrumentation,” SAE Paper No. J211/1
11.
Kleinberger, M., Sun, E., Eppinger, R., Kuppa, S., Saul, R., 1998, “Development of Improved Injury Criteria for the Assessment of Advanced Automotive Restraint Systems,” NHTSA Technical Report.
12.
Zellmer, H., Luhrs, S., and Bruggemann, K., 1998, “Optimized Restraint System for Rear Seat Belt Passengers,” International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV) Paper No. 98-S1-W-23.
13.
Kent, R., Crandall, R., Bolton, J., Duma, S., “Driver and Right-Front Passenger Restraint System Interaction, Injury Potential, and Thoracic Injury Prediction,” Proceeding of the 44th Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine Conference.
14.
Eppinger, R., Marcus, J., and Morgan, R., 1984, “Development of Dummy and Injury Index for NHTSA’s Thoracic Side Impact Protection Research Program,” SAE Paper No. 840885
15.
Shaw, G., Lapidot, A., Scavnicky, M., Thacker, J., Roy, P., Savage, G., Witherington, C., Day, D., 1994, “Wheelchair tiedown interlaboratory test,” Proceedings of the 17th Annual Rehabilitation Engineering Society of North America (RESNA) Conference
16.
Horsch, J., Melvin, J., Viano, D., Mertz, H., 1991, “Thoracic Injury Assessment of Belt Restraint Systems Based on Hybrid? Chest Compression,” SAE paper no. 912895.
17.
Shaw, G, Crandall, J, Butcher, J., 2000, “Biofidelity Evaluation of the THOR Advanced Frontal Crash Test Dummy,” IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact.
18.
Shaw, G, Lessley, D, Kent, R, Crandall, J., 2005, “Dummy Torso Response to Anterior Quasi-Static Loading,” International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV) Paper No. 05-0371.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.