The objective of the EU-funded CLEVER Project (Compact Low Emission VEhicle for uRban transport) is the design and development of a novel two-seat vehicle for individual urban transport providing car-like levels of comfort, safety and convenience with the lower emissions, noise levels and road footprints of motorcycles. A narrow three-wheeled tilting vehicle has been identified as the best method of achieving these goals. One problem with vehicles with a narrow track is the unstable roll moment created when cornering. To solve this issue, the vehicle's centre of gravity is moved towards the centre of the corner by tilting the vehicle in a similar manner to that of a motorcycle. An active tilting system using hydraulic actuation has been employed, allowing for car-like controls. A prototype vehicle has been built to test this active tilting system. Initial testing revealed that while basic steady state handling was good, transient response required improvement. The evidence indicating this poor response is examined, and the necessary methods employed within the control system to solve the issue are discussed. Improved results are presented following an increase in the system gain. The effects of different filter cutoff frequencies on the objective and subjective vehicle handling characteristics is also investigated and presented here. It is shown that when designing a three-wheeled tilting vehicle with the arrangement used in CLEVER, safe handling can only be achieved at the expense of fast tilt response. This is a result of fundamental limitations of the vehicle design.

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Drew, B., 2006. “Development of Active Tilt Control for a Three-Wheeled Vehicle”. PhD Thesis, University of Bath, Bath, UK.
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