In a conventional bilateral teleoperation, transmission delay over the Internet can potentially cause instability. The wave variables algorithm can solve this problem at the cost of poor transient response. The wave variables algorithm with adaptive predictor and drift control based on our previous work [24] has been proposed to provide stability under time delay with improved performance. The effectiveness of this algorithm is fully evaluated using human subjects with no previous experience in haptics. Three algorithms are tested using Phantom haptic devices as master and slave: conventional bilateral teleoperation with no transmission delay as control, wave variables with 200-300 ms transmission delay one way, and wave variables with adaptive predictor and direct drift control (WAPD) also with 200-300 ms delay one way. For each algorithm the human subjects are asked to perform three simple tasks: free space trajectory tracking, surface contour identification, and maze navigation. The results show WAPD to be superior to regular wave variables algorithm with higher subject ratings.

1.
W. R. Ferrell, Delay Force Feedback, IEEE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, pp. 449–455, Oct. 1966.
2.
Smith
J. M.
,
Closer Control of Loops with Dead Time
,
Chemical Engineering Progress
, Vol.
53
, No.
5
, pp.
217
219
, May
1957
.
3.
Oboe
R.
and
Fiorini
P.
,
A Design and Control Environment for Internet-Based Telerobotics
,
International Journal of Robotics Research
, Vol.
17
, No.
4
, pp.
433
339
,
1998
.
4.
Llewellyn
F. B.
,
Some Fundamental Properties of Transmission Systems
,
Proceeedings of IRE
, Vol.
40
, No.
5
, pp.
271
283
,
1952
.
5.
T. Imaida, Y. Yokokohji, T. Doi, M. Oda, and T. Yoshikawa, Ground-Space Bilateral Teleoperation of ETS-VII Robot Arm by Direct Bilateral Coupling under 7-S Time Delay Condition, IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, Vol. 20, No. 3, June 2004.
6.
Leung
G. M. H.
,
Francis
B. A.
, and
Apkarian
J.
.,
Bilateral Controller for Teleoperators with Time Delay via μ-Synthesis
,
IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automations
, Vol.
11
, pp.
105
116
, Feb.
1995
.
7.
Kim
W. S.
,
Hannaford
B.
, and
Bejczy
A. K.
,
Force Reflection and Shared Compliant Control in Operating Telemanipulators with Time Delay
,
IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation
, Vol.
8
, pp.
176
185
, April
1992
.
8.
Tsumaki
Y.
,
Hoshi
Y.
,
Naruse
H.
, and
Uchiyama
M.
,
Virtual Reality Based Teleoperation which Tolerates Geometrical Modeling Errors
,
Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
, Vol.
3
, pp.
1023
1030
, Nov.
1996
.
9.
Funda
J.
and
Paul
R. P.
,
Model-Based, Delay-Tolerant Teleoperation in Unstructured Environments
,
Proceedings of 6th Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference
, Vol.
2
, pp.
908
911
, May
1991
.
10.
Kotoku
T.
,
A Predictive Display with Force Feedback and its Application to Remote Manipulation System with Transmission Time Delay
,
Proceedings of IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
, Vol.
1
, pp.
239
246
, July
1992
.
11.
Penin
L. F.
,
Matsumoto
K.
, and
Wakabayashi
S.
,
Force Reflection for Time-Delayed Teleoperation of Space Robots
,
Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, Vol.
4
, pp.
3120
3125
, April
2000
.
12.
Anderson
R. J.
and
Spong
M. W.
,
Bilateral Control of Teleoperators with Time Delay
,
IEEE Transaction on Automatic Control
, Vol.
34
, Issue
5
, pp.
494
501
, May
1989
.
13.
Niemeyer
G.
and
Slotine
J. E.
,
Stable Adaptive Teleoperation
,
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering
, Vol.
16
, No.
1
, pp.
152
162
, Jan.
1991
.
14.
Lawn
C. A.
and
Hannaford
B.
,
Performance Testing of Passive Communication and Control in Teleoperation with Time Delay
,
Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, Vol.
3
, pp.
776
783
, May
1993
.
15.
Benedetti
C.
,
Franchini
M.
, and
Fiorini
P.
,
Stable Tracking in Variable Time-Delay Teleoperation
,
Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
, Vol.
4
, pp.
2252
2257
, Nov.
2001
.
16.
Lew
J. Y.
,
Repperger
D. W.
, and
Berlin
J.
,
Wave Variable Based Teleoperation with Time Delay: Application to Space Based Laser Maintenance
,
Aerospace Conference Proceedings
, Vol.
5
, pp.
2912
2919
, March
2004
.
17.
S. Ganjefar, H. Momeni, and F. Janabi-Sharifi, Teleoperation Systems Design Using Augmented Wave-Variables and Smith Predictor Method for Reducing Time-Delay Effects, Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control, pp. 333-338, Oct. 2002.
18.
Munir
S.
and
Book
W. J.
,
Wave-Based Teleoperation with Prediction
,
Proceedings of the American Control Conference
, Vol.
6
, p
4605
4611
, June
2001
.
19.
H. Arioui, A. Kheddar, and S. Mammar, A Predictive Wave-Based Approach for Time Delayed Virtual Environments Haptics Systems, Proceedings of IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Interactive Communication, pp. 134-139, Sept. 2002.
20.
Yokokohji
Y.
,
Imaida
T.
, and
Yoshikawa
T.
,
Bilateral Teleoperation under Time-Varying Communication Delay
,
Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
, Vol.
3
, pp.
1854
1859
, Oct.
1999
.
21.
Yokokohji
Y.
,
Imaida
T.
, and
Yoshikawa
T.
,
Bilateral Control with Energy Balance Monitoring Under Time-Varying Communication Delay
,
Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, Vol.
3
, pp.
2684
2689
, April
2000
.
22.
Mirfakhrai
T.
and
Payandeh
S.
,
A Delay Prediction Approach for Teleoperation over the Internet
,
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
, Vol.
2
, pp.
2178
2183
, May
2002
.
23.
Kosuge
K.
,
Murayama
H.
,
Takeo
K.
,
Bilateral Feedback Control of Telemanipulators via Computer Network
,
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
, Vol.
3
, pp.
1380
1385
, Nov.
1996
.
24.
Ching
H.
and
Wayne
J. Book
,
Internet-Based Bilateral Teleoperation Based on Wave Variable with Adaptive Predictor and Direct Drift Control
,
Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control
, Volume
128
, No.
1
, pp.
86
93
, March
2006
.
25.
Tanner
N. A.
and
Niemeyer
G.
,
High-Frequency Acceleration Feedback in Wave Variable Telerobotics
,
ASME Transaction on Mechatronics
, Vol.
11
, Issue
2
, pp.
119
127
, April
2006
.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.