In this work, a design optimization procedure is developed to maximize the energy efficiency of a scissor mechanism for the NextGen's Batwing application. The unit cells are modeled using a finite element approach. The model considers elastic skin, modeled as linear springs, as well as actuator and aerodynamic loads. A nonlinear large displacement analysis is conducted, and the position of the actuator is optimized using Matlab's gradient based optimization algorithm FMINCON. This optimization procedure is used to investigate the effect of different constraints and load cases. The model is expanded to include multiple unit cells and actuators. A two stage optimization process using a Genetic Algorithm and traditional gradient based optimization (FMINCON) is also developed. The two stage optimization is used to optimize actuator position and placement for different constraints and load cases. Results show that placement and position optimization produce small gains in maximizing energy efficiency; morphing using a soft isotropic skin is more efficient than stiff isotropic and anisotropic skin. In addition, the GA did not use the all of the available actuators to maximize energy efficiency.
Nonlinear Analysis and Optimization of Diamond Cell Morphing Wings
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Johnson, T, Frecker, M, Joo, J, Abdalla, M, Sanders, B, Gurdal, Z, & Lindner, D. "Nonlinear Analysis and Optimization of Diamond Cell Morphing Wings." Proceedings of the ASME 2006 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Aerospace. Chicago, Illinois, USA. November 5–10, 2006. pp. 163-178. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2006-14398
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