Single cell electrophysiological analyses were demonstrated via sub-micrometer openings using micro-and nano-machining technologies. In the prototype demonstration, a 6GΩ seal resistance was achieved on a HeLa cell, a cervical cancer cell line with size between 10~20μm, using the microfabricated electrophysiological system with opening size of 500nm in diameter and the measured electrolyte pipette resistance is 200kΩ. In a second experiment on a vacuolar yeast cell of 3~5μm in size, using a device with 800nm opening, a 500MΩ seal resistance was achieved and the measured electrolyte pipette resistance is 1MΩ.

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