An experimental and numerical study is presented on melting behavior of a pure metal in the presence of a static magnetic field. When a transverse magnetic field is present and the working fluid is electrically conductive, the resulting Lorentz forces will dampen the convective flows. Buoyancy driven flow is the focus of this study. Hartmann number, a dimensionless parameter proportional to the strength of magnetic field, dominates the convection flow suppression. The effects of the magnetic strength on melting rate and on the profile of solid/melt interface are studied. The experiments are conducted with pure Gallium as phase change material (PCM) inside a rectangular test cell. The solid/melt interface at the side center position is measured by an ultrasound device and its profile is mapped via the florescent light shadowgraphy. Temperature measurements and volume expansion/contraction tracking are used to verify the experimental result. The results show that the magnetic strength has a remarkable effect on the melting rate and the interface profile. The numerical simulation fits very well with the experimental data especially, at larger Hartmann numbers.

1.
Pellis
Neal R.
and
North
Regina M.
,
Recent NASA research accomplishments aboard the ISS
,
ACTA ASTRONAUTICA
,
2004
, Vol.
55
,
589
598
2.
Yeckel
Andrew
and
Derby
Jeffrey J.
,
Dynamics of three-dimensional convection in microgravity crystal growth: g-jitter with steady magnetic fields
,
Journal of Crystal Growth
, Volume
263
, Issues 1–4, 1 March 2004, Pages
40
52
3.
Ganapathysubramanian
Baskar
and
Zabaras
Nicholas
,
Using magnetic field gradients to control the directional solidification of alloys and the growth of single crystals
,
Journal of Crystal Growth
, Volume
270
, Issues 1–2, 15 September
2004
, Pages
255
272
4.
Baskar Ganapathysubramanian and Nicholas Zabaras, Control of solidification of non-conducting materials using tailored magnetic fields, Journal of Crystal Growth, December 2004
5.
Ramachandran
N.
and
Leslie
F. W.
,
Using magnetic fields to control convection during protein crystallization-analysis and validation studies
,
Journal of Crystal Growth
, Volume
274
, Issues 1–2, 15 January
2005
, Pages
297
306
6.
Li
K.
and
Hu
W. R.
,
Magnetic field design for floating zone crystal growth
,
Journal of Crystal Growth
, Volume
230
, Issues 1–2, August
2001
, Pages
125
134
7.
Baumgartl
J.
and
Mu¨ller
G.
,
The use of magnetic fields for damping the action of gravity fluctuations (g-jitter) during crystal growth under microgravity
,
Journal of Crystal Growth
, Volume
169
, Issue 3, 1 December
1996
, Pages
582
586
8.
Yamanaka
Yoji
,
Kakimoto
Koichi
,
Ozoe
Hiroyuki
and
Churchill
Stuart W.
,
Rayleigh-Benard oscillatory natural convection of liquid gallium heated form below
,
Chemical Engineering Journal
,
1998
, Vol.
71
, pp.
201
205
9.
Hwang
G. J.
and
Tsai
C. W
,
Effect of natural convection on laminar pipe flow solidification
,
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
1995
, Vol.
38
, No.
15
, pp.
2733
2742
10.
Okada
K
and
Ozoe
H.
, “
Experimental Heat Transfer Rates of Natural Convection of Molten Gallium Suppressed Under an External Magnetic Field in Either the X, Y, Z Direction
,”
Journal of Heat Transfer
,
1992
, Vol.
114
, pp.
107
114
11.
Botton
V.
,
Lehmann
P.
, and
Moreau
R.
,
A new measurement method of solute diffusivities based on MHD damping of convection in liquid metals and semiconductors
,
Energy conversion and Management
,
2002
, Vol.
43
, pp.
409
416
12.
Campbell
T. A
,
Koster
J. N.
,
Visualization of liquid-solid interface morphologies in gallium subject to natural convection
,
Journal of Crystal Growth, Journal of Crystal Growth
,
1994
, Vol.
140
, pp.
414
425
13.
Derebail
R.
and
Oster
J. N. K
,
Visualization study of melting and solidification in convecting hypoeutectic Ga-In alloy
,
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
1998
, Vol.
41
, No.
16
., pp.
2537
2548
14.
Asako
Y.
,
Gonc¸alves
E.
,
Faghri
M.
, and
Charmchi
M.
, “
Numerical Solution of Melting Processes for Fixed and Unfixed Phase Change Material in the Presence of Electromagnetic Field –Simulation of Low Gravity Environment
,”
Numerical Heat Transfer Part A: Applications
, Vol.
42
, pp.
565
583
,
2002
.
15.
E. Gonc¸alves, M. Faghri, Y. Asako, and M. Charmchi, M., Nov. 16–21, 2003, “Numerical Solution of Melting in Side-Heated Rectangular Enclosure Under Electromagnetically Simulated Low Gravity,” Proc. of 2003 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, Washington, D.C. November 2003.
16.
E. Gonc¸alves, M. Faghri, Y. Asako, and M. Charmchi, “Numerical Solution of Melting Processes for Unfixed Phase Change Material in the Presence of Electromagnetic Field –Simulation of Low Gravity Environment–,” Proc. of 2002 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, New Orleans, LA, November 2002.
17.
D. Veilleux, E. Gonc¸alves, M. Faghri, Y. Asako, and M. Charmchi, “Phase Change in a Three-Dimensional Rectangular Cavity under Electromagnetically Simulated Low Gravity: Side Wall Heating,” Proc. of 2004 ASME Heat Transfer/Fluids Eng., Charlotte, NC, July 2004.
18.
P. Davidson, “Introduction to magnetohydrodynamic,” Cambridge University Press, 2001
19.
D. Veilleux, E. Gonc¸alves, M. Faghri, Y. Asako, and M. Charmchi, “Phase Change in a Three-Dimensional Rectangular Cavity under Electromagnetically Simulated Low Gravity: Side Wall Heating,” Proc. of 2004 ASME Heat Transfer/Fluids Eng., Charlotte, NC, July 2004. J. Krautkramer, “Ultrasonic Testing of Materials,” Springer-Verlag, New York, 1977
20.
D. Hykes, W. Hedrick, and D. Starchman, “Ultrasound Physics and Instrumentation,” Churchill Livingstone, New York, 1985.
21.
McDonough
M.
and
Faghri
A.
, “
Ultrasonic Measurement of Solid Liquid Interface for the Solidification of Water in Rectangular Enclosure
,”
Journal of Heat Transfer
, Vol.
115
, pp.
1075
1078
,
1993
.
22.
M. Charmchi, H. Zhang, W. Li and M. Faghri, Solidification and melting of gallium in the presence of magnetic field-experimental simulation of low gravity environment, proceeding of IMECE 2004, Anaheim, CA, Nov. 13–19, 2004
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.