A 20-mm-width × 30-mm-length flat copper heater in a 30-mm-width × 20-mm-height cross-sectional rectangular channel was used to simulate the forced convection flow and subcooled flow boiling in standard engine cooling systems. To visualize the effects of velocity, subcooling, and pressure, a high-speed camera was used. The subcooling ranged from 10°C to 50°C, the velocity from 0.5 m/s to 4 m/s, the pressure from 1 atm to 2.6 atm, and the heat flux from 0 W/cm2 to 80 W/cm2. The measured forced convection and boiling curves of water were presented along with high-speed photographs.

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