The benefits potentially available by replacing conventional hydraulic ABS brake systems with electromechanical brake-by-wire systems (EMB) are extensive and have been well documented. They include increased functionality, packaging and design flexibility, reduced assembly costs, and elimination of hydraulic fluids [1, 2]. A characteristic of most ABS systems is a sequence of discontinuous build-hold-dump pressure cycles, whereas EMB systems will allow continuous control of brake torque. In this paper, the antilock performance of an EMB using a continuous brake torque control strategy is compared against that of a current state-of-the-art hydraulic ABS system. The comparison was performed using a half-car model developed in the Simulink environment. The hydraulic system characteristics were identified from ABS test data on a recent production vehicle and the simulated ABS logic was also validated using this data. A simple model of the dynamics of an EMB actuator with clamp force control was developed, and validated against limited test results from a prototype EMB system. A continuous gain-scheduled PID wheel slip controller was developed for the EMB to replace the conventional ABS logic. Brake system performances were compared using an Antilock Performance Index (API). The results of the comparison indicate that an EMB with continuous slip control has the potential to perform better than a conventional ABS system, provided a suitably robust wheel slip controller and algorithm for determining the appropriate target slip are available.

R. Schwarz, R. Isermann, et al., “Modeling and control of an electromechanical disk brake,” SAE Technical Paper 980600, 1998.
R. T. Bannatyne, “Advances and challenges in electronic braking control technology,” SAE Technical Paper 982244, 1998.
H. Bauer, K.-H. Dietsche, et al., Driving-safety Systems, 2nd ed: Robert Bosch GmbH, 1999.
W.-D. Jonner, H. Winner, et al., “Electrohydraulic brake system - the first approach to brake-by-wire technology,” SAE Technical Paper 960991, 1996.
M. Kees, K. J. Burnham, et al., “Hydraulic actuated brake and electromechanically actuated brake systems,” ADAS01: International Conference on Advanced Driver Assistance Systems, 17–18 Sept., 2001.
G. F. Mauer, G. F. Gissinger, et al., “Fuzzy logic continuous and quantizing control of an ABS braking system,” SAE Technical Paper 940830, 1994.
M. Akey, “Development of fuzzy logic ABS control for commercial trucks,” SAE Technical Paper 952673, 1995.
K. R. Buckholtz, “Reference input wheel slip tracking using sliding mode control,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0301, 2002.
I. Petersen, T. A. Johansen, et al., “Wheel slip control in ABS brakes using gain-scheduled constrained LQR,” in Nonlinear and hybrid systems in automotive control, R. Johansson and A. Rantzer, Eds. Warrendale, PA.: SAE International, 2003.
I. Y. Tyukin, K. V. Prokhorov, et al., “A new method for adaptive brake control,” American Control Conference, Portland, Oregon, 8–10 June, 2005.
G. Forkenbrock, M. Flick, et al., “A comprehensive light vehicle antilock brake system test track performance evaluation,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-1287, 1999.
T. D. Gillespie, Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), 1992.
O. C. Emereole, “Antilock Performance Comparison Between Hydraulic and Electromechanical Brake Systems,” M. Eng.Sc. thesis, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Melbourne, 2004.
E. Bakker, L. Nyborg, et al., “Tyre modelling for use in vehicle dynamics studies,” SAE Technical Papers 870421, 1987.
H. B. Pacejka and E. Bakkar, “The Magic Formula tyre model,” 1st Int. Coll. on Tyre Models for Vehicle Dynamics Analysis, Delft, The Netherlands, 21–22 Oct., 1991. Supplement to Vehicle System Dynamics, vol. 21, 1993.
D. J. Schuring, W. Pelz, et al., “The BNPS Model: An automated implementation of the ’Magic Formula’ concept,” SAE Technical Paper 931909, 1993.
K. L. d’Entremont, “The behaviour of tyre-force model parameters under extreme operating conditions,” SAE Technical Paper 970558, 1997.
J. E. Bernard and G. L. Clover, “Tyre modeling for low speed and high speed calculations,” SAE Technical Paper 950311, 1995.
G. L.
J. E.
, “
Longitudinal tyre dynamics
Vehicle System Dynamics
, vol.
, pp.
J. Y. Wong, Theory of Ground Vehicles, 3rd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001.
N. E. Ebert, “SAE tyre braking traction survey: a comparison of public highways and test surfaces,” SAE Technical Paper 890638, 1989.
J. N. H. Sledge and K. M. Marshek, “Vehicle critical speed formula - Values for the coefficient of friction - a review,” SAE Technical Paper 971148, 1997.
T. D. Day and S. G. Roberts, “A Simulation model for vehicle braking systems fitted with ABS,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0559, 2002.
G. J. Heydinger, W. R. Garrott, et al., “A methodology for validating vehicle dynamics simulations,” SAE Technical Paper 900128, 1990.
J. E. Bernard and C. L. Clover, “Validation of computer simulations of vehicle dynamics,” SAE Technical Paper 940231, 1994.
G. J. Heydinger, R. A. Bixel, et al., “Measured vehicle inertial parameters - NHTSA’s data through November 1998,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-1336, 1999.
L. D. Metz, M. C. Clark, et al., “Moments of inertia of mounted and unmounted passenger car and motorcycle tires,” SAE Technical Paper 900760, 1990.
J. P. Chrstos and G. J. Heydinger, “Evaluation of VDANL and VDM RoAD for predicting the vehicle dynamics of a 1994 Ford Taurus,” SAE Technical Paper 970566, 1997.
M. K. Salaani, J. P. Chrstos, et al., “Parameter measurement and development of a NADSdyna validation data set for a 1994 Ford Taurus,” SAE Technical Paper 970564, 1997.
M. K. Salaani and G. J. Heydinger, “Powertrain and brake modeling of the 1994 Ford Taurus for the National Advanced Driving Simulator,” SAE Technical Paper 981190, 1998.
R. A. Bixel, G. J. Heydinger, et al., “Sprung/unsprung mass properties determination without vehicle disassembly,” SAE Technical Paper 960183, 1996.
C. Maron, T. Dieckmann, et al., “Electromechanical brake system: Actuator control development system,” SAE Technical Paper 970814, 1997.
R. Schwarz, R. Isermann, et al., “Clamping force estimation for a brake-by-wire actuator,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-0482, 1999.
J. A. Ridnour and F. H. Speckhart, “The development and testing of a prototype electromagnetic ABS for drum brakes,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0598, 2001.
O. C. Emereole and M. C. Good, “The effect of tyre dynamics on wheel slip control using electromechanical brakes,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0419, 2005.
S. Solyom and A. Rantzer, “ABS control - a design model and control structure,” in Nonlinear and hybrid systems in automotive control, R. Johansson and A. Rantzer, Eds. Warrendale, PA.: SAE International, 2003.
T. A.
, et al., “
Gain-scheduled wheel slip control in automotive brake systems
IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology
, vol.
, pp.
ISO 11835(E): 2002, “Road Vehicles: Motor vehicles with antilock braking systems (ABS) - Measurement of braking performance.”
H. K. Brewer, “Design and Performance Aspects of Antilock Brake Control Systems,” Frictional Interaction of Tire and Pavement, Akron-Fairlawn, Ohio, 11–13 Nov., 1981.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.