Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is a relatively new engine technology with fundamental differences over conventional engines. HCCI engines are intrinsically fuel flexible, and can run on low grade fuels, as long as the fuel can be evaporated and heated to the point of ignition. In particular, HCCI engines can run on wet ethanol with high concentration of water. Considering that much of the energy required for processing the ethanol is spent in distillation and dehydration, direct use of wet ethanol in an HCCI engine considerably shifts the energy balance in favor of ethanol. The results of the paper show that an HCCI engine with efficient heat recovery can operate on a 35-65% volumetric mixture of ethanol and water, while achieving a high efficiency (38.7%) and very low NOx (1.6 parts per million, clean enough to meet any existing or oncoming emissions standards). Operation of the HCCI engine with 35% ethanol by volume reduces the energy required for distillation and dehydration from 37% to 3% of the overall energy of ethanol and coproducts. The net energy gain increases considerably, from 21% to 55% of the total energy value of the fuel and coproducts. Wet ethanol combustion in HCCI engines shows great potential for improving the ethanol energy balance, and merits more detailed analysis and experimental evaluation.

1.
Pimentel, D., 2001, “The Limits of Biomass Energy,” In Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, Academic Press, Vol. 2, 3rd edition, pp. 159–171
2.
Shapouri
H.
,
Duffield
J. A.
, and
Wang
M.
,
2003
, “
The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol Revisited
,”
Transaction of the ASAE
, Vol.
46
(
4
), pp.
959
968
.
3.
Shapouri, H., Duffield, J. A., and Graboski, M. S., 1995, “Estimating the Net Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol,” USDA Economic Research Service report AER-721, Washington, D.C.
4.
Ladisch
M. R.
, and
Dyck
K.
,
1979
, “
Dehydration of Ethanol: New Approach Gives Positive Energy Balance
,”
Science
, Vol.
205
, August, pp.
878
900
.
5.
Johnston Associates, Inc. 1999, “Energy Consumption in the Manufacture of Selected Bioproducts: Historical Trends,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory report, Golden, Colorado.
6.
Epping, K., Aceves, S.M., Bechtold, R.L., and Dec, J.E., 2002, “The Potential of HCCI Combustion for High Efficiency and Low Emissions,” SAE Paper 2002-01-1923.
7.
Aceves, S. M., Flowers, D. L., Westbrook, C. K., Pitz, W., Smith, J.R., Dibble, R. W. Christensen, M., and Johansson, B., 2000, “A Multi-Zone Model for Prediction of HCCI Combustion and Emissions,” SAE paper 2000-01-0327
8.
Sharke
P.
,
2000
, “
Otto or not, Here it Comes
,”
Mechanical Engineering
, Vol.
122
, No.
6
, June, pp.
62
66
.
9.
Wolters, P., Salber, W., Geiger, J., Duesmann, M, Dilthey, J., 2003, “Controlled Auto Ignition Combustion Process with an Electromechanical Valve Train,” SAE paper 2003-01-0032
10.
Ohyama, Y., 2003,” Simultaneous Control of Air/Fuel Ratio and Intake, Exhaust Valve Timing for HCCI Operation,” SAE paper 2003-01-1084
11.
Allen, J., and Law, D., 2002, “Variable Valve Actuated Controlled Auto-Ignition: Speed Load Maps and Strategic Regimes of Operation,” SAE paper 2002-01-0422
12.
Koopmans, L., Strom, H., Lundgren, S., Backlund, O., and Denbratt, I., 2003, “Demonstrating a SI-HCCI-SI Mode Change on a Volvo 5-Cylinder Electronic Valve Control Engine,” SAE paper 2003-01-0753.
13.
Martinez-Frias, J., Aceves, S.M., Flowers, D., Smith, J.R., and Dibble, R., 2000, “HCCI Engine Control by Thermal Management,” SAE Paper 2000-01-2869.
14.
Martinez-Frias, J., Flowers, D., Aceves, S.M., Espinosa-Loza, F., and Dibble, R. 2004, “Thermal Management for 6-Cylinder HCCI Engine: Low Cost, High Efficiency, Ultra-Low NOX Power Generation,” Proceedings of 2004 Fall Technical Conference ASME International Combustion Engine Division, Long Beach, CA, USA.
15.
Kee, R.J., Rupley, F.M., Meeks, E., and Miller, J.A., 1996, “CHEMKIN III: A FORTRAN Chemical Kinetics Package for the Analysis of Gas-Phase Chemical and Plasma Kinetics,” Sandia National Laboratories Report SAND96-8216, Livermore, CA.
16.
Pitz, W. J., Westbrook, C. K., and Leppard, W. R., 1991, “Autoignition Chemistry of C4 Olefins under Motored Engine Conditions: A Comparison of Experimental and Modeling Results,” SAE paper 912315.
17.
Frenklach, M., Wang, H., Goldenberg, M., Smith G. P., Golden, D. M., Bowman, C. T., Hanson, R. K., Gardiner, W. C., and Lissianski, V., 1995, “GRI-Mech - An Optimized Detailed Chemical Reaction Mechanism for Methane Combustion,” GRI Topical Report No. GRI-95/0058.
18.
Heywood, J. B., 1988, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
19.
Woschni, G., 1967, “Universally Applicable Equation for the Instantaneous Heat Transfer Coefficient in the Internal Combustion Engine,” SAE Paper 670931.
20.
Patton, K. J., Nitschke, R. G., and Heywood, J. B., 1989, “Development and Evaluation of a Friction Model for Spark-Ignition Engines,” SAE paper 890836.
21.
Christensen, M., Johansson, B., Amneus, P., and Mauss, F., 1998, “Supercharged Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition,” SAE Paper 980787.
22.
Wilson, D. G., 1993, The Design of High-Efficiency Turbomachinery and Gas Turbines, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
23.
Klein, S. A., and Alvarado, F. L., 2002, “Engineering Equation Solver,” F-Chart Software, Box 44042, Madison, WI.
24.
Ho, C.Y., Liley, P. E., Makita, T., and Tanaka, Y., 1988, “Properties of Inorganic and Organic Fluids,” Edited by Cindas Data Series of Material Properties, Vol. V-1, Chapter 10, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.
25.
Aceves, S. M., Martinez-Frias, J., and Reistad, G. M., 2004 “Analysis of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines for Cogeneration Applications,” Paper IMECE 2004-62371, Proceedings of the ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Anaheim, CA.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.