The mass density, Young’s modulus (E), tangent modulus (Et) and yield stress (σy) of the human ribs, sternum, internal organs and muscles play important roles when determining impact responses of the chest associated with pendulum impact. A series of parametric studies was conducted using a commercially available three-dimensional finite element (FE) model, Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) of the whole human body, to determine the effect of changing these material properties on the impact force, chest deflection, and the number of rib fractures and fractured ribs. Results from this parametric study indicate that the initial chest stiffness was mainly influenced by the mass density of the muscles covering the torso. The number of rib fractures and fractured ribs were primarily determined by E, Et and σy of the ribcage and sternum. Similarly, the E, Et and σy of the ribcage, which is defined as the bony skeleton of the chest, and sternum and E of the internal organs contributed to the maximum chest deflection in frontal impact, while the maximum chest deflection for lateral impact was mainly affected by the E, Et and σy of the ribcage.

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