In this paper, a closed-form analytical model, which considers the coupling of heat transfer effects and enzymatic reaction kinetics, is developed to describe the behavior of MEMS thermal biosensors for substrate detection either in flow-injection mode or flow-through mode. Simulation results show that the maximum thermopile output voltage is saturated at higher substrate concentrations for flow-injection mode. For flow-through mode, there exists an optimal flow rate which corresponds to the maximum thermopile output voltage. The optimal flow rate is inversely proportional to the concentration of the substrate involved in the reaction. A prototype MEMS thermal biosensor is fabricated and tested. The validity of the models is verified by comparison to the experimental results.

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