Loss mechanisms in a scallop shrouded transonic power generation turbine blade passage at realistic engine conditions have been identified through a series of large-scale (typically 12 million finite volumes) simulations. All simulations are run with second-order discretization and viscous sublayer resolution, and they include the effects of viscous dissipation. The mesh (y+ near unity on all surfaces) is highly refined in the tip clearance region, casing recesses, and shroud region in order to fully capture complex interdependent flow physics and the associated losses. Aerodynamic losses, in order of their relative importance, are a result of the following: separation around the tip, recesses, and shroud; tip vortex creation; downstream mixing losses, localized shocks on the airfoil; and the passage vortex emanating from under the shroud. A number of helical lateral flows were established near the upper shroud surfaces as a result of lateral pressure gradients on the scalloped shroud. It was found that the tip leakage and passage losses increased approximately linearly with increasing tip clearance, both with and without the effect of the relative casing motion. For each tip clearance studied, scrubbing slightly reduced the tip leakage, but the overall production of entropy was increased by more than 50%. Also the overall passage mass flow rate, for a given inlet total pressure to exit static pressure ratio, increased almost linearly with increasing tip clearance. In addition, it was also found that there was slight positive and negative lift on the shroud, depending on the tip clearance. At the lowest tip clearance of 20 mils there was a negative lift on the shroud. In the 200-mil tip clearance case there was a positive lift on the shroud. The relative motion of the casing contributed positively to the lift at every tip clearance, affecting more at the lowest tip clearance where the casing is closest to the blade tip. Lastly, it was found that the computed entropy generation for the stationary 80-mils case using the SKE turbulence model was close to that of the 80-mils scrubbing case using the RKE turbulence model. In light of the proposed mechanisms and their relative contributions, suggested design considerations are posed.

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