Space conditioning energy needs are strongly affected by occupant behavior. Generally, simulations ignore the behavior of the occupants in estimating the energy needed for heating and cooling. During winter heating, it is reasonable to assume that the electricity associated with appliances contributes to the space heating needs. This paper describes the monitoring of energy used for space heating over a 15 year period. The data suggest that estimates of energy savings can be based upon envelope thermal resistance for moderate occupant behavior. For these occupants space heating is well characterized by the daily average difference between house average space temperature and outside air temperature. Characterizing in terms of indoor temperature, outdoor air temperature, wind speed, and insolation gives a slightly better representation but requires more information than is usually available. However, vigorous conservation tactics can lead to substantially different energy needs and no correlation could be established when aggressive conservation made use of thermostat setback at every opportunity.

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