Modern applications in robotics such as teleoperations and haptics require high performance force actuators. Pneumatic actuators have significant advantages over electrical motors in terms of force-to-mass ratio. However, position and force control of these actuators in applications that require high bandwidth is not trivial because of the compressibility of air and highly non-linear flow through pneumatic system components. In this paper, we develop a detailed model of a pneumatic actuator system comprised of a double acting cylinder and a proportional servo valve to be used in position, force or hybrid position and force control.

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