Bone surgery simulation enhanced by virtual reality technology is an effective means of training and educating novice surgeons to practice common bone surgery procedures such as drilling, cutting, etc. Haptic rendering is an essential part of the development of a bone surgical simulation system. Visual displays augmented by haptic feedback provide more realistic virtual environments, thus allowing the trainee to get a realistic feel of the real-world surgery process. This paper presents our research on the development of a bone surgery simulation system, especially on the development of the haptic rendering. Our objective is to provide a high level of realism of haptic rendering, thus making the virtual surgery procedures as intuitive and interactive as the real-world surgery procedures. In order to achieve the real-time performance of the simulation system, a Divide-and-Conquer method has been introduced in the geometric modeling to manipulate the large dataset required by the surgery simulation system. A force model based on the volumetric representation of the bone geometry has been developed. Also a running time delay technique has been developed to address the vibration problem in the haptic display. The PHANToMTM desktop manipulator is used as an input device to locate the position and orientation of a virtual drill. It is also used as an output device to provide the user with haptic sensation during the drilling operation.

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