It is clear that costal cartilage and rib articulation calcification, as well as, weakness of the respiratory muscles reduce the rib cage volume displacement. Usually, calcification begins from costochondral junction and extends toward the sternocostal junction. Teale et al [1] reviewed seven hundred chest radiographs to determine the site and extent of the calcification over an age range of 20 to 90 years. They concluded that the prevalence of the costal cartilage calcification increases from 6% in the 3rd decade to 45% in the 9th and is more common in men. In addition, it is generally assumed that muscle strength decreases 30–40%, between 30 and 80 years of age. The effect of these age-related changes on the respiratory volume change can be realized by studying the transverse and anteroposterior expansion of the ribs during respiration. Here, we try to estimate the respiratory volume change through the changes in the “bucket-handle” movement of the 5th rib utilizing finite element model. The effect of costal cartilages calcification in both transverse and anteroposterior movement of the rib cage can be attained by modeling the total rib cage.

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