Underspeed needle control of two Pelton turbine hydro units operating in a small power system has caused many incidents of partial system blackouts. Among the causes are conservative governor designs with regard to small signal stability limits, non-minimum phase power characteristics, and long tunnel-penstock traveling wave effects. A needle control model is developed from “water to wires” and validated for hydro-turbine dynamics using turbine test data. Model parameters are tuned with trajectory sensitivity. Proposed governor designs decompose the needle regulation gains into the power and frequency governor loops with a multi-time-scale approach. Elements of speed loop gain scheduling and a new inner-loop pressure stabilization circuit are devised to improve the frequency regulation and to damp the traveling wave effects. Simulation studies show the improvements of the proposed control designs.
Pelton Turbine Needle Control Model Development, Validation, and Governor Designs
Johnson, RM, Chow, JH, & Dillon, MV. "Pelton Turbine Needle Control Model Development, Validation, and Governor Designs." Proceedings of the ASME 2003 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Dynamic Systems and Control, Volumes 1 and 2. Washington, DC, USA. November 15–21, 2003. pp. 971-980. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2003-41989
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