Non invasive echocardiographic techniques have been widely used to provide structural information via imaging of cardiovascular anatomy and functional hemodynamics via measurement of local blood flow velocity. Although the non-invasive nature of the technique is highly attractive, Doppler measurement of blood velocity is still limited due to the inherent angle dependence which requires the ultrasound beam be parallel to the flow direction. This limitation precludes measurement of velocity vectors within the flow field. Such multi-dimensional information would be useful for quantitation of velocity profiles, shear stress, vorticity and flow rate in vivo.

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