Stents, wire-frame structures, are very effective devices in the treatment of vascular diseases, such as stenoses and aneurysms. One-third of patients who have stent placements develop restenosis over a six-month period, with the cause thought to be hemodynamic-related. The use of stent grafts to treat aneurysms often leads to exclusion of smaller vessels adjacent to the aneurysm from the circulation, and success of this procedure may therefore depend on the size of small vessels being occluded. An open stent is preferred to preserve the blood supply to neighboring vessels, but is considered to be less effective in aneurysm thrombosis and in reducing the pressure inside the aneurysm.

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