Twelve million people worldwide die of diseases associated with atherosclerosis. It is estimated that atherosclerosis costs the US economy 100 billion dollars each year. From clinical studies, it is well known that atherosclerosis has preferred locations in the vascular system, primarily sited in the carotid arteries, coronary arteries, and in vessels supplying the lower extremities in the arterial system [1]. In the vicinity of a bifurcating, arterial flow tends to separate forming recirculation regions. In addition, due to the pulsatile character of blood flow during the deceleration part of the cycle, the flow becomes unstable and transition to turbulence may occur. The combination of the above-described phenomena generates abnormal shear stress levels and high shear stress gradients, especially at the reattachment point of the separated region.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.