In this work, low temperature selective solder (Pb37/Sn63) bonding of silicon chips or wafers for MEMS applications using a continuous wave (CW) carbon dioxide (CO2) laser at a wavelength of 10.6μm was examined. The low reflectivity, fair transmittance, and high absorptivity of silicon at the 10.6μm wavelength led to selective heating of the silicon and reflow of an electroplated or screen printed intermediate solder layer which produced silicon-solder-silicon joints. Finite element simulations were carried out to optimize the process parameters in order to achieve uniform heating and minimum induced thermal stress. The bonding process was performed on the fixtures in a vacuum chamber at an air pressure of one milliTorr to achieve fluxless soldering and vacuum encapsulation of silicon dies. The bonding temperature at the sealing ring was close to the reflow temperature of the eutectic lead tin solder, 183°C. Pull test results showed that the joint was sufficiently strong and could not be separated before the silicon die broke. Helium leak testing showed that the leak rate of the package was below 10−8 atm · cc/sec under optimized bonding conditions. The results of the Design of Experiment (DOE) method indicated that both laser incident power and scribe velocity significantly influenced bonding results. This novel method is especially suitable for vacuum bonding wafers containing MEMS and other micro devices with low temperature budgets where managing stress distribution is important. Further, sealed encapsulated and released wafers can be diced without damaging the MEMS devices at wafer scale.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.