Recent technological trends based on miniaturization of mechanical, electromechanical, and photonic devices to the microscopic scale have led to the development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Effective development of MEMS components requires the synergism of advanced design, analysis, and fabrication methodologies, and also of quantitative metrology techniques for characterizing their performance, reliability, and integrity during the electronic packaging cycle. In this paper, we describe optoelectronic techniques for measuring, with sub-micrometer accuracy, shape and changes in states of deformation of MEMS structures. With the described optoelectronic techniques, it is possible to characterize MEMS components using the display and data modes. In the display mode, interferometric information related to shape and deformation is displayed at video frame rates, providing the capability for adjusting and setting experimental conditions. In the data mode, interferometric information related to shape and deformation is recorded as high-spatial and high-digital resolution images, which are further processed to provide quantitative 3D information. Furthermore, the quantitative 3D data are exported to computer-aided design (CAD) environments and utilized for analysis and optimization of MEMS structures. Capabilities of optoelectronic techniques are illustrated with representative applications demonstrating their applicability to provide indispensable quantitative information for the effective development and optimization of MEMS structures.

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