A numerical model is developed to simulate the short-circuiting metal transfer process during gas metal arc welding (GMAW). To our best knowledge, for the first time, the energy equation is considered in analyzing the short-circuiting time, along with the continuity and momentum equations. A front tracking free surface method is implemented to explicitly track the profile of the liquid bridge. The electromagnetic field, distribution of velocity, pressure, and temperature are calculated using the developed model. Effects of welding current, Marangoni shear stress and initial drop volume on short-circuiting duration time are examined. The results show that both the electromagnetic force and Marangoni shear stress play significant roles in the short-circuiting transfer.

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