A plane-strain thermo-elasto-viscoplastic finite element model has been developed and used to simulate orthogonal machining. Simulations of cutting 304L stainless steel have been carried out using sharp, chamfered, and honed ceramic tools. Employing a combined thermal and mechanical stress analysis with temperature-dependent physical properties, the finite element model is used to investigate the effect of process parameters, tool geometry and edge preparation on the machining process. Stress and strain distributions within the chip and the elastic tool are presented. In addition, trends in the cutting and thrust forces, contact stress distributions and the plastic deformation beneath the machined surface are studied.

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