An anisotropic ductile damage description is motivated from fracture mechanisms and physical observations in Al-Si-Mg aluminum alloys with second phases. Ductile damage is induced by the classical process of nucleation of voids at inclusions, followed by their growth and coalescence. These mechanisms are related to different microstructural and length scale parameters like the fracture toughness, the void size, the intervoid ligament distance, etc. The classical thermodynamic constraints of irreversible processes with material state variables are used to model the tensorial damage evolution coupled to the Bammann-Chiesa-Johnson (BCJ) rate-dependent plasticity. The damage-plasticity coupling is based on the effective stress concept, assuming the total energy equivalence, and written through a deviatoric damage effect tensor on the deviatoric part and through the trace of the second rank damage tensor on the hydrostatic part. The damage rate tensor is additively decomposed into a nucleation rate tensor, a void growth rate scalar, and a coalescence rate tensor. The induced damage anisotropy is mainly driven by the nucleation, which evolves as a function of the absolute value of the plastic strain rate tensor. Finally, some experimental data of cast A356 aluminum alloy are correlated with predictive void-crack evolution to illustrate the applicability of the anisotropic damage model.
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An Anisotropic Damage Model for Ductile Metals
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Hammi, Y, Horstemeyer, MF, & Bammann, DJ. "An Anisotropic Damage Model for Ductile Metals." Proceedings of the ASME 2002 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. Materials: Processing, Characterization and Modeling of Novel Nano-Engineered and Surface Engineered Materials. New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. November 17–22, 2002. pp. 185-192. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2002-32887
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