Off-angle impact behavior and specific energy absorption (SEA) of E-glass/polyurethane square tubes have been investigated under static and dynamic loading. Various fiber orientations, braided, CSM (Continuous Strand Mats), and RCM (Random Chopped Mats) lay-ups were used. Consistent test data suggested that dynamic off-angle crush forces are lower than the static ones. Dynamic maximum moments during a progressive crush are slightly higher than its static counterpart. Tubes constructed of CSM and RCM break-off when the maximum moment is reached whereas, tubes constructed of stitched/braided fiber fold upon reaching the maximum moment and remain intact. Specific energy absorption is reduced with the increase of impact angle due to combined loading effect. Certain lay-ups give more SEA than others. Ratios of average static to dynamic crush force are presented for different lay-ups and impact angles.

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