A new model for estimating the effects of high thermal radiation heat fluxes on occupants has been developed. This model allows the user to specify the type of clothing worn by typical occupants (e.g., street clothing or protective clothing), percentage of body covered by clothing, and occupant characteristics (e.g., age). Numerical models of heat transfer in fabrics and skin are used to estimate the times required to produce burn damage to bare and clothed skin. These skin burn estimates are used along with occupant characteristics to estimate the time-dependent probability of death from a fire. This paper reviews existing models for estimating the effects of high heat fluxes on occupants, describes the heat transfer models used to make skin burn estimates, and compares the results of the new model with those from existing models.

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