In designing bolted joints, it is important to know the contact stress distribution which governs the clamping effect or the sealing performance and to estimate the load factor (the ratio of an increment in axial bolt force to an external load) from bolt design standpoint. The clamping force by bolts and the external bending moment are axi-asymmetrical loads and not many investigations have seen reported which treat axi-asymmetrical. In this paper, the clamping effect, and the load factor for the case of solid round bars with circular flanges, subjected to external bending moments, are analyzed as an axi-asymmetrical problem using the three-dimensional theory of elasticity. Experiments were carried out concerning the contact stress distribution, and the load factor for the external bending moment (a relationship between an increment in axial bolt force, and external bending moment). The analytical results were in fairly good agreement with the experimental ones.

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