This paper outlines and discusses the application conditions pertinent to refrigeration cooling a computer processor at both the module and system level. Amongst the issues that are addressed are total refrigeration heat load (comprised of active and parasitic heat loads), coefficient of performance (COP), continuous operation (reliability, concurrent maintenance), system heat rejection, condensation formation, and temperature stability. The paper will then examine how a vapor compression refrigeration system has been incorporated in IBM’s high end (Gx) servers. Finally, the paper will touch upon some of the additional complexities of operation at very low temperatures (less than −40 °C).

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