Precise control of friction is very important for energy efficiency and sustainability in manufacturing processes. In the present investigation, various surface textures have been employed to vary the frictional conditions. More specifically, textures were varied from unidirectional to criss-cross to unidirectional by grinding the steel surfaces against emery papers for various numbers of cycles. Sliding experiments were conducted using an inclined pin-on-plate apparatus against the prepared steel surfaces under dry and lubricated conditions. In the experiments, it was observed that the coefficient of friction and transfer layer formation on the harder surfaces were controlled by the textures of the harder surfaces under both dry and lubricated conditions. The asperity angle of the harder surface plays a dominant role in controlling the friction and transfer layer at the sliding interface. Thus, by understanding appropriate roughness parameters, the friction and wear performance can be accurately controlled to enhance energy efficiency and the quality of the finished products in manufacturing process.

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