Slip and fall accidents cost billions of dollars each year. Shoe-floor-lubricant friction has been shown to follow the Stribeck effect, operating primarily in the boundary and mixed-lubrication regimes. Two of the most important factors believed to significantly contribute to shoe-floor-lubricant friction in the boundary lubrication regime are adhesion and ploughing. Experiments were conducted using a pin-on-disk tribometer to quantify adhesion and ploughing contributions to shoe-floor friction in dry and lubricated conditions. The coefficient of friction between three shoe materials and two floor materials of different hardness and roughness were considered. Experiments were conducted under six lubricants for a sliding speed of 0.01 m/sec at ambient conditions. It was found that the contribution of adhesion and ploughing to shoe-floor-lubricant friction was significantly affected by material hardness, roughness, and lubricant properties. Material hardness and roughness are known to affect adhesion, with increased hardness or increased roughness typically resulting in decreased adhesion. The smoothest shoe material, while also being the hardest, resulted in the greatest adhesional contribution to friction. The roughest material, while also being the softest, resulted in the lowest adhesional contributions under dry conditions. Canola oil consistently resulted in the lowest percent of full adhesion and water consistently resulted in the highest percent of full adhesion, presumably due to the thickness, of the boundary lubrication layer. Ploughing contribution was dependent upon the hardness of the shoe and floor materials. A positive correlation was found between the shoe and floor hardness ratio and ploughing coefficient of friction.

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