An improved rough surface contact model is proposed accounting for bulk substrate deformation and asperity interaction. The asperity contact stiffness is based on Hertzian solution for spherical contact, and the bulk substrate stiffness on the solution of Hertzian pressure on a circular region of the elastic half-space. The contact behavior of a single asperity composed of hemi-spherical asperity deformation as well as bulk substrate deformation is calculated by introducing the concept of spring-in-series. Based on the single asperity model, the contact stiffness for the rough surface is calculated including the effect of asperity interaction. Analytical simulation results using the proposed rough surface contact model were compared with the CEB model and experimental measurements.

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