CMP process yield depends on effectiveness of a post-CMP cleaning, which should reduce roughness of the polished wafer and leave it defect-free, consistently removing particles, organic residues, and ionic contamination. This paper presents an overview of wafer cleaning attributes, challenges and opportunities. The cleaning effectiveness depends on the stability of brush PVA (Poly Vinyl Alcohol) properties, magnitude of brush-wafer frictional force, and the adhesion forces between the particle and wafer, and the particle and brush.

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