Template-based high-rate nanomanufacturing and wafer bonding both rely on surface energy to bring the surfaces into intimate contact. In high-rate nanomanufacturing, unlike wafer bonding, the contacting surfaces must be easily separated after the pressure is removed. A common problem in wafer bonding and nanomanufacturing is particle contamination. Trapped particles cause a separation zone that will prevent the intimate contact required to transfer nanoscale devices from the template to the device wafer. This problem is examined here using two different methods. The first method examines the effect of a rigid particle trapped between elastic plates. The second investigates the effect of a plastically deforming particle trapped between two elastic half-spaces.

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