Advances in various areas of precision mechanics, such as semi-conductor manufacturing equipment, MEMS/NEMS, biomechanics, nano-imprint and nano-technology, have required ultraprecise positioning techniques with nanometer scale accuracy to be developed. To meet such specific needs, many different kinds of actuator capable of ultraprecise motions have recently been produced. However, each actuator has some inherent problems; for example, actuators containing piezoelectric elements have been reported to cause hysteresis errors, thermal drifts, deterioration, and destruction. Based on this background, highly reliable and accurate actuators are strongly required.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.