An integrated multi-physics approach was taken in order to model the complex physics behind chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP). This model, known as the particle-augmented mixed lubrication model, accounts for the important mechanical interactions in CMP—namely, fluid mechanics, particle dynamics, contact mechanics, and wear—and incorporates all of them into an integrated algorithm. The compiled model is then simulated over a series of time steps in order to form a predictive tool for CMP.

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