Cooling tower pump sumps are often designed according to the Hydraulic Institute (HI) Standards [1]. However, when geometric or economic limitations lead to deviations from these standards, a physical hydraulic model study is often conducted. This paper summarizes a number of recent physical model studies and brings to attention some of the recurring problems observed during the physical model studies. Performance comparisons are made between stations strictly adhering to the established design standards and those with minor or significant variations.

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