Standard Monte Carlo (MC) simulation techniques in current use (Valleau and Whittington, Valleau and Torrie, 1977) in the study of Statistical properties of fluids are limited to being performed in rectangular coordinates and rely on a non-physical construct called virtual images. Virtual imaging was a technique used in the early days of computer simulations (1950–1960) to reduce extraneous boundary effects in Monte Carlo simulations of fluids (Wood, 1968). Simulations were restricted to rectangular sampling regions providing the central sampling area with virtual images of itself. All particles, including those near the boundary, by other particles.

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