Abstract

Electric vehicles (EVs) are considered an environmentally friendly option to conventional vehicles. As the most critical module in EVs, batteries are complex electrochemical components with nonlinear behavior. On-board battery system performance is also affected by complicated operating environments. Real-time EV battery in-service status prediction is tricky but vital to enable fault diagnosis and aid in the prevention of dangerous occurrences. Data-driven models with advantages in time series analysis can be used to capture the degradation pattern from data about certain performance indicators and predict the battery states. The Transformer model is capable of capturing long-range dependencies efficiently using a multi-head attention block mechanism. This paper presents the implementation of a standard Transformer and an encoder-only Transformer neural network to predict EV battery state of health (SOH). Based on the analysis of the lithium-ion battery from NASA Prognostics Center of Excellence website’s publicly accessible dataset, 28 features related to the charge and discharge measurement data are extracted. The features are screened using Pearson correlation coefficients. The results show that the filtered features can effectively improve the accuracy of the model as well as the computational efficiency. The proposed standard Transformer shows good performance in SOH prediction.

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