Abstract

Electrification of the transportation sector is expanding rapidly, and lithium-ion batteries are an essential technology making electromobility possible. Automobile manufacturers currently optimize their battery strategy for fast charge, long range, and safety for the duration of the vehicle’s life. Batteries must eventually be replaced as they degrade and lose performance. While end of life batteries are not useful in electric vehicles, they can be repurposed to work in alternative energy storage products with lower performance. Once they can no longer store energy, they can be recycled to recover valuable metals and reintroduce them into newer products. The environmental impact of batteries differs across the industry since there is a lack of battery design standards. The goal of this work is to study the design choices that facilitate reusability and recyclability of electric vehicle batteries and compile them into a list of design recommendations. The recommendations are derived from published literature, in which design tradeoffs between performance, economics and recycling and reuse are investigated. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize these recommendations and best practices from throughout the published literature and organize them into summary tables that serve as quick-reference design guidelines for the engineer.

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