We use the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method to determine the dynamics of granular material in its interaction with a four-wheel rover. The goal of the simulation is to investigate the mobility of the rover while operating on granular terrains. In order to speed up the simulation, we employ a continuum model to capture the dynamics of the deformable terrain. The rover wheel geometry is defined through a mesh. The granular material is modeled as an elasto-plastic continuum that dynamically interacts with the rigid wheels of the rover in a Chrono [1] co-simulation setup. The interaction between each wheel and the granular terrain is handled through so-called Boundary Conditions Enforcing (BCE) particles which are attached to the rover wheel. Several simulations are performed to assess the rover robustness for operation in flat (with obstacles), uphill, downhill, and side-tilted mobility scenarios.

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