Advances in additive manufacturing enable the fabrication of complex structures with intricate geometric details. It also escalates the potential for high-resolution structure design. However, the increasingly finer design brings computational challenges for structural optimization approaches such as topology optimization (TO) since the number of variables to optimize increases with the resolutions. To address this issue, two-scale TO paves an avenue for high-resolution structural design. The design domain is first discretized to a coarse scale, and the material property distribution is optimized, then using micro-structures to fill each property field. In this paper, instead of finding optimal properties of two scales separately, we reformulate the two-scale TO problem and optimize the design variables concurrently in both scales. By introducing parameterized periodic cellular structures, the minimal surface level-parameter is defined as the material design parameter and is implemented directly in the optimization problem. A numerical homogenization method is employed to calculate the elasticity tensor of the cellular materials. The stiffness matrices of the cellular structures derived as a function of the level parameters, using the homogenization results. An additional constraint on the level parameter is introduced in the structural optimization framework to enhance adjacent cellulars interfaces’ compatibility. Based on the parameterized micro-structure, the optimization problem is solved concurrently with an iterative solver. The reliability of the proposed approach has been validated with different engineering design cases. Numerical results show a noticeable increase in structure stiffness using the level parameter directly in the optimization problem than the state-of-art mapping technique.

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