The goal of this research is to demonstrate the applicability of the Human Error and Functional Failure Reasoning (HEFFR) framework to complex engineered systems. Human errors are cited as a root cause of a majority of accidents and performance losses in complex engineered systems. However, a closer look would reveal that such mishaps are often caused by complex interactions between human fallibilities, component vulnerabilities, and poor design. Hence, there is a growing call for risk assessments to analyze human errors and component failures in combination. The HEFFR framework was developed to enable such combined risk assessments. Until now, this framework has only been applied to simple problems, and it is prone to be computationally heavy as complexity increases. In this research, we introduce a modular HEFFR assessment approach as means of managing the complexity and computational costs of the HEFFR simulations of complex engineered systems. Then, we validate the proposed approach by testing the consistency of the HEFFR results between modular and integral assessments and between different module partitioning assessments. Next, we perform a risk assessment of a train locomotive using the modular approach to demonstrate the applicability of the HEFFR framework to complex engineered systems. The results show that the proposed modular approach can produce consistent results while reducing complexity and computational costs. Also, the results from the train locomotive HEFFR analysis show that the modular assessments can be used to produce risk insights similar to integral assessments but with a modular context.

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