Abstract

In this work, we discuss the modeling, control, and implementation of a rimless wheel with torso. We derive and compare two control methodologies: a discrete-time controller (DT) that updates the controls once-per-step and a continuous-time controller (CT) that updates gains continuously. For the discrete controller, we use least-squares estimation method to approximate the Poincaré map on a certain section and use discrete-linear-quadratic-regulator (DQLR) to stabilize a (closed-form) linearization of this map. For the continuous controller, we introduce moving Poincaré sections and stabilize the transverse dynamics along these moving sections. For both controllers, we estimate the region of attraction of the closed-loop system using sum-of-squares methods. Analysis of the impact map yields a refinement of the controller that stabilizes a steady-state walking gait with minimal energy loss. We present both simulation and experimental results that support the validity of the proposed approaches. We find that the CT controller has a larger region of attraction and smoother stabilization as compared with the DT controller.

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