Abstract

The planar dual spring-loaded inverted pendulum (dual-SLIP) model is a well-established passive template of human walking on flat ground. This paper applies an actuated extension of the model to walking on inclines and declines to evaluate how well it captures the behavior observed in human slope walking. The motivation is to apply the template to improve control of humanoid robot walking and/or intent detection in exoskeleton-assisted walking. Gaits of the actuated planar dual-SLIP model are found via the solution of a constrained nonlinear optimization problem in ten parameters. The majority of those parameters define the actuation scheme that injects energy for incline walking and absorbs energy for decline walking to achieve periodic, nonconservative gaits. Solution gaits across the speed range of 1.0 to 1.6 ms and slope range of −10 to 10 degrees exhibit some of the characteristics of human walking, such as the effect of slope on stance duration, step frequency, and step length. Efforts to reduce the number of parameters optimized by enforcing relationships observed in the solution gaits proved unsuccessful, suggesting that future work must trade off model complexity with fidelity of representation of human behavior.

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