Alongside promising advances in biomechatronics, the following research presents the first documented investigation reviewing the electromechanical system designs of energetically-powered (i.e., robotic) prostheses for patients with transfemoral amputations. The technical review begins with examining the material and mechanical designs, and electrical batteries incorporated into robotic transfemoral prostheses. The actuation systems have encompassed electromagnetic actuators (i.e., occasionally featuring series elastic elements), pneumatic actuators (i.e., pneumatic cylinders and pneumatic artificial muscles), and hydraulic actuators. Various wearable sensors have been utilized to provide closed-loop feedback control, including electromechanical sensors, surface electromyography, and bioinspired machine vision systems. The Össur Power Knee (i.e., the only commercially-available powered transfemoral prosthesis) is additionally discussed. The technical review concludes with suggesting prospective future directions for innovation, specifically lower-limb prostheses capability of electrical energy regeneration.

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