Foot-ground interaction is modeled for a human gait simulation by using a 2D skeletal model with 12 degrees of freedom (DOF). Three contacting elements are attached to the heel, phalangeal, and toe sections respectively. The contacting process is modeled using an inverse optimization approach, in which the contacting force due to the penetration deformation and velocity is equal to the balanced ground reaction force (GRF). This is set as an equality constraint in the walking optimization formulation. A predictive dynamics approach is used to predict the walking motion and to optimize the contacting process. The results indicated that the contacting model can realistically match the GRF, and the resulting gait motion, contacting penetration, and contacting parameters are all optimized simultaneously. The optimal solution is obtained in seconds. This demonstrates an efficient way to model the foot-ground contacting deformation process using an inverse optimization method and eliminates the need for integrating equations of motion (EOM).

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