The objective of this study was to develop a discomfort function for including a high DOF upper body model during walking. A multi-objective optimization (MOO) method was formulated by minimizing dynamic effort and the discomfort function simultaneously. The discomfort function is defined as the sum of the squares of deviation of joint angles from their neutral angle positions. The dynamic effort is the sum of the joint torque squared. To investigate the efficacy of the proposed MOO method, backward walking simulation was conducted. By minimizing both dynamic effort and the discomfort function, a 3D whole body model with a high DOF upper body for walking was demonstrated successfully.

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