Transmission error is typically understood to act as the primary source of gearbox noise and vibration. This paper investigates the effect of sliding friction on the transmission error and tooth load of spur gears. To do so, the kinematic relation for the sliding mechanism of spur gears and mesh stiffness was calculated. The relationship between tooth load, tooth errors and mesh compliance as well as the moment balance equation in consideration of the teeth friction force are derived. Transmission error, tooth load, and the teeth friction force of gears with/without modification were investigated. As the results, friction caused an increase in tooth load and transmission error in gear approach and a decrease in tooth load and transmission error in gear recess.

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